Blog

Present Perfect and Past Simple

Past Simple

Positive sentences

For regular verbs, add ed to the infinitive.

cook → cooked

For irregular verbs, you have to learn the irregular forms.

make → made
speak → spoke

Negative sentences

didn’t make
didn’t speak

Questions

Did you make?
Did you speak?

Present Perfect

Positive sentences

have/has + 3rd form

For regular verbs, where the past form ends with ed, the 3rd form is the same as the past form.

cook → cooked → have/has cooked

For irregular verbs, the 3rd form can be the same as the past form, or it can be different, you have to learn the irregular forms..

make → made → have/has made
speak → spoke → have/has spoken

Negative sentences

haven’t made
hasn’t spoken

Questions

Have you made?
Has he spoken?

Present Perfect and Past Simple

In which of the following sentences is the verb kupić being used to talk about a present situation?

1 Cześć kochanie. Kupiłem Ci butelkę wina. Mam nadzieję, że będzie Ci smakowało.

2 Ostatni raz kupiłem butelkę wina, chyba dwa lata temu.

Sentence 1 is talking about a present situation. You aren’t interested in when the bottle was bought, only that there is currently a bottle of wine which you can drink.

Notice that, even though the verb kupić is in a past form, you are using it to talk about a present situation, there is a bottle of wine waiting to be drunk. You know this because of the situation and/or because the time the bottle was bought isn’t mentioned, it isn’t important.

You could use both of the sentences below and they would mean the same thing – mam teraz butelkę wina.

Cześć kochanie. Kupiłem Ci butelkę wina. Mam nadzieję, że będzie Ci smakowało.

Cześć kochanie. Mam dla Ciebie butelkę wina. Mam nadzieję, że będzie Ci smakowało.

With the Present Perfect we are usually interested in the present result of a past action and not when that past action happened. The Present Perfect therefore usually answers the question – czy coś zrobiłeś?

Cześć kochanie. Czy kupiłeś Mi butelkę wina? – Tak, kupiłem.
Hi Honey. Have you bought me a bottle of wine? – Yes, I have.

Cześć kochanie. Kupiłem Ci butelkę wina. Mam nadzieję, że będzie Ci smakowało.
Hi Honey. I have bought you a bottle of wine. I hope you’ll like it.

Sentence 2 is talking about a past situation. What is important is when the bottle was bought and this information is included in the sentence. Unlike sentence 1 you probably don’t know anything about the present situation regarding the bottle of wine.

Ostatni raz kupiłem butelkę wina, chyba dwa lata temu. (Czy teraz masz butelkę?)

If you want to know about the present situation, you have to add more information.

Ostatni raz kupiłem butelkę wina, chyba dwa lata temu. Teraz nie mam bo wypiłem.

Ostatni raz kupiłem butelkę wina, chyba dwa lata temu. Nie lubię wina i jeszcze jest w piwnicy.

If it is important to know when a past action happened, use the Past Simple. The Past Simple therefore usually answers the question – kiedy coś zrobiłeś?

Kiedy ostatni raz kupiłeś butelkę wina?
When was the last time you bought a bottle of wine?

Ostatni raz kupiłem butelkę wina, chyba dwa lata temu.
I think I last bought a bottle of wine two years ago.

Translate the following sentences and decide which would use the Present Perfect and which would use the Past Simple?

1 Już ugotowałam obiad dla Ciebie.

2 Wczoraj ugotowałam obiad. To twoja kolejka!

3 Kochanie, naprawiłem samochód i możesz teraz pojechać do sklepów.

4 W zeszłą sobotę naprawiłem samochód.

Answers

1 I have just cooked dinner for you.

2. I cooked dinner yesterday. It’s your turn.

3. Darling, I have fixed the car and you can now go to the shops.

4. I fixed the car last Saturday.

Present Continuous and Present Simple

Do these sentences mean the same thing?

On idzie do sklepu.

On (zawsze) chodzi do sklepu.

Which sentence tells you that somebody is walking to the shop right now, at the moment you are speaking? How do you know?

Which sentence tells you that somebody walks to the shop regularly, but that he isn’t walking to the shop right now, at the moment you are speaking? How do you know?

In Polish, you sometimes use a different verb to show the difference between something somebody is doing right now and something which somebody does regularly.

Do these sentences mean the same thing?

On czyta gazetę.

On często czyta gazetę.

Which sentence tells you that somebody is reading a newspaper right now, at the moment you are speaking? How do you know?

Which sentence tells you that somebody reads a newspaper regularly, but that he isn’t reading a newspaper right now, at the moment you are speaking? How do you know?

In Polish, you sometimes add an adverb to show the difference between something somebody is doing right now and something which somebody does regularly.

In English, we don’t have to use a different verb or add an adverb to show the difference between ‚right now’ and ‚regularly’. We use the same verb, but use two different aspects – continuous and simple.

In Polish, you don’t always see it as important to show the difference between ‚right now’ and ‚regularly’. If it’s necessary, you can show the difference by using a different verb or an adverb or you can use the context of the situation to decide on the meaning.

In English, we always show the difference by using the simple or continuous aspect.

Using the examples from earlier we would write:

He is walking to the shop. – On idzie do sklepu.

He walks to the shop. – On (zawsze) chodzi do sklepu.

He is reading a newspaper. – On czyta gazetę.

He reads a newspaper. – On zawsze czyta gazetę.

Notice that we can add an adverb if we want to say how often something happens, but this isn’t necessary.

He often reads a newspaper. – On często czyta gazetę.

He sometimes reads a newspaper. – On czasami czyta gazetę.

 

Present Continuous answers the question: Co robisz (w tej chwili)?

Present Simple answers the questions: Co robisz (ogólnie, regularnie)? and Jak często …?