Phrasal verbs are verbs which have one or more particles (partykuły), a preposition (przyimek) or an adverb (przysłówek), added to them.
The prepositions or adverbs change the meaning of the verb to something different.
You have phrasal verbs in Polish, but you usually add a prefix (przedrostek) to the front of the verb to make one single word e.g.
In English, the particle goes after the verb as a separate word.
throw out – wyrzucić/wyrzucać
When you want to use a different tense with a phrasal verb you only have to change the verb to the correct form. The particle is always the same.
I throw out the rubbish every day. – Codziennie, wyrzucam śmieci.
I am throwing out the rubbish. – Wyrzucam śmieci.
I threw out the rubbish yesterday. – Wczoraj, wyrzuciłem śmieci.
I have thrown out the rubbish. – Wyrzuciłem śmieci.
Phrasal verbs are usually used in informal speech and they are used very often. In formal speech or writing you would normally use a different, more formal, verb in place of the phrasal verb, but the meaning is the same.
I have thrown out the rubbish. (informal) – Wyrzuciłem śmieci.
I have discarded the rubbish. (formal) – Wyrzuciłem śmieci.
Next: Phrasal verbs 2