Phrasal verbs 2

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Phrasal verbs, like all verbs in English and Polish, can be divided into intransitive (nieprzechodni) and transitive (przechodni). In a dictionary intransitive verbs are often shown by the letters vi (verb intransitive) and transitive verbs are often shown by the letters vt (verb transitive)

Intransitive verbs, such as posiedzieć, don’t need an object (kogo? co?/komu? czemu?);

I like to sit and watch TV. – Lubię sobie posiedzieć i pooglądać telewizję.

Transitive verbs, such as lubić or ufać, do need an object;

Does Piotr like Agnieszka? – Czy Piotr lubi Agnieszkę?

Does Piotr trust Agnieszka? – Czy Piotr ufa Agnieszce?

Intransitive phrasal verbs

Intransitive phrasal verbs are used in exactly the same way as a normal verb. The verb and any particles always stay together in one group and other information goes after this group.

Can I sit down? – Czy mogę usiąść?

Can I sit down here? – Czy mogę tutaj usiąść?

Transitive phrasal verbs

Transitive phrasal verbs are divided into two different types;

non-separable (nierozłączny)
separable (rozłączny)

Knowing whether a phrasal verb is separable or non-separable is important because it tells us where we can put the object when we use the verb.

There are no rules to tell you which phrasal verbs are non-separable and which are separable. You will have to look in a good English dictionary e.g. Macmillan Dictionary, to find out.

Transitive non-separable phrasal verbs

Transitive non-separable phrasal verbs will normally be shown in a dictionary in the following way;

run after someone/something – gonić kogoś or biegać za kimś/czymś

This tells you that the object can be a person or a thing and that the object MUST come AFTER the phrasal verb. You should be aware that the meaning of the phrasal verb can sometimes be different depending on whether the object is a person or a thing.

run after someone/something – gonić kogoś or biegać za czymś

I ran after the thief. – Goniłem złodzieja.
I ran after the bus. – Biegłam za autobusem.

Although I said there are no rules to tell you if a phrasal verb is non-separable or separable there is one exception: a phrasal verb with more than one particle is ALWAYS non-separable.

run away with someone – uciec z kimś

I ran away with my girlfriend to America. – Uciekłem do Ameryki z dziewczyną.

You can see that both intransitive and transitive non-separable phrasal verbs are used in exactly the same way that you would use a normal verb. The verb and any particles always stay together in one group. Other information, or the object of the verb if the verb is transitive, go after this group.

intransitive

Can I sit down? – Czy mogę usiąść?

Can I sit down here? – Czy mogę tutaj usiąść?

Come and sit down next to me. – Chodź i usiądź obok mnie.

transitive – non-separable

I ran after the bus. – Biegłam za autobusem.

I ran after the thief. – Goniłem złodzieja.

I ran away with my girlfriend to America. – Uciekłem do Ameryki z dziewczyną.

Next: Phrasal verbs 3